Grape varieties: in % Grüner Veltliner 36.04 Blauer Zweigelt 8.97 Blaufränkisch 5.44 Welschriesling 8.91 Weißer Burgunder & Chardonnay 6.05 Riesling 3.39 Blauer Portugieser 4.86 other varieties white 4.47 other varieties red 3.53 Source: Federal Institute for Viticulture, Eisenstadt, 2002
Airén- This is Spain's most widely planted white grape variety. The bunches are large and tightly-packed. It produces wines with a characteristic bouquet and alcohol content between 12% vol. and 14% vol. It can be found, among other regions, in Ciudad Real (51% of planting), Toledo, Cuenca, Albacete, Murcia and Madrid. It is the main variety in Vinos de Madrid DO.
Albariño White. Native to Galicia, with small, very sweet glyceric berries which produce high quality wines. It is the basic grape of Rías Baixas DO. There has been a dramatic increase in the area planted with this grape over the last few years.
Garnacha Blanca White Garnacha. Produces full-bodied wines with a high alcohol content. Very abundant throughout Spain, especially in Tarragona, Zaragoza and Teruel. It is classified as a main variety in Alella, Costers del Segre, Tarragona and Terra Alta DOs.
Garnacha Tinta Red Garnacha. A high-yielding grape that produces vigorous wines. This is the most widely grown red grape in Spain, especially in La Rioja, Madrid, Navarre, Tarragona, Teruel, Toledo and Zaragoza. It is considered a main variety in the following DOs: Ampurdán-Costa Brava, Calatayud, Campo de Borja, Cariñena, Costers del Segre, La Mancha, Méntrida, Penedés, Priorato, Somontano, Tarragona, Terra Alta, Utiel-Requena, Valdeorras and Vinos de Madrid.
Garnacha Tintorera Red. This grape, also known as Alicante, is so-called because it is the only variety, along with Alicante Bouché, which has coloured flesh (tintorera comes from the verb teñir = to dye). It is widely planted in Albacete, Alicante, Orense and Pontevedra, and it is considered a main variety in Almansa DO.
Godello White. A high quality, very aromatic grape. Native to Galicia, new planting has been encouraged in the last few years, especially in Valdeorras DO. It is considered a main variety in Valdeorras and Bierzo DOs.
Loureira White high quality Galician grape that creates very aromatic wines. Authorised in Rías Baixas and Ribeiro DOs. There is also a red Loureira, but it is very rare.
Macabeo White. Also called Viura. This is the basic cava variety. Mainly found in Badajoz, La Rioja, Tarragona and Zaragoza, this is considered a main variety in Calatayud, Conca de Barberá, Costers del Segre, Navarra, Penedés, Rioja, Somontano, Tarragona and Terra Alta DOs.
Mencía Red. According to recent studies, this grape is very similar to Cabernet Franc. It produces high quality wines and is most widely planted in León (68%), Zamora, Lugo and Orense provinces. It is considered a main variety in Valdeorras and Bierzo DOs.
Moscatel White, superbly aromatic grape with a high sugar content. It produces very characteristic wines and is also frequently consumed directly as a dessert grape. Widely grown across the whole of Spain, it is particularly frequent in Valencia and Málaga. It is also considered a main variety in Málaga and Valencia DOs.
Palomino White. A basic grape in Jerez wines, called Jerez outside this growing area. Its high yields led to extensive planting in many Spanish regions, especially Galicia. It flourishes in Cádiz (68%), Orense, Valladolid, Zamora and Huelva. It is considered a main variety in Jerez and Condado de Huelva DOs.
Pedro Ximénez White grape with a high sugar content. To a greater or lesser extent, it is found almost everywhere in Spain, It is most widespread in Córdoba (68%), Badajoz, Málaga and Valencia and is considered a main variety in the following DOs: Jerez, Málaga, Montilla-Moriles, and Valencia.
Tempranillo Red. Superb quality and very aromatic, the star of Spanish grapes. It is called Ull de Llebre in Catalonia, Cencibel in Castile-La Mancha and Madrid, and Tinto Fino and Tinto del Pais in Castile and Leon. It flourishes in Burgos, La Rioja, Alava, Cuenca and Ciudad Real. It is considered a main variety in the following DOs: Calatayud, Cigales, Conca de Barbera, Costers del Segre, La Mancha, Penedes, Ribera del Duero, Rioja, Somontano, Utiel-Requena, Valdepenas, and Vinos de Madrid. Also known as Tinta del Pais, tinto fino
Tinta de Toro Red. Produces aromatic, good quality wines, although it does not give high yields. Some maintain that it is an acclimatised version of Tempranillo that has become adapted to the region of Zamora, and that this is also the origin of its name. It is considered a main variety of Toro DO
Torrontés White. Originally from Galicia, it produces wines of little body and good acidity, with considerable personality and an intense bouquet. It can be found throughout Galicia and in Córdoba.
Treixadura White. Native to Galicia, this is one of the most aromatic varieties of Galician grape, and its cultivation is being encouraged in a number of areas. It is considered a main variety in Ribeiro DO.
Verdejo White. Very high quality and one of the best white varieties in Spain. It makes very aromatic, glyceric, soft wines with body. It is plentiful in Valladolid (69%), Segovia and Ávila. It is considered a main variety of Rueda DO.
Xarel.lo o Xarello White. Together with the Macabeo and Parellada varieties, it makes up the trilogy of cava grapes. It produces very aromatic wines. It is considered a main variety in the Alella (where it is known as Pansá), Costers del Segre, Penedés and Tarragona DOs, as well as in denominated cava-producing areas.
This is the perspective of the 2006 vintage from the winemaker of Produttori del Barbaresco. Seen as one of Europe's most successful farmer co-ops PdB has been making Barbaresco since 1894! In my mind they represent the best quality to price ratio Barbaresco in the market. More info on Produttori del Barbaresco can be found here.
"The 2006 vintage began with nice spring weather. The warm temperatures in the first half of May caused early flowering around May 25 (flowering usually occurs in early June for Nebbiolo). Temperatures lowered at the beginning of June but without adversely affecting the flowering and fruit set of the vines. These conditions led to an abundant harvest. July brought temperatures higher than average. But August saw milder and more pleasant weather with warm days alternated with cooler and more ventilated days. Unlike other regions in Italy, rainfall was scarce and as a result, the season was relatively dry, especially for vineyards with the best exposure, which were warmer and drier. The abundant amount of fruit made summer thinning all the more important in order to rebalance production and allow for good ripening.
September arrived with healthy fruit with somewhat high sugar levels. But the development of the fruit and its aromas was however delayed, especially in the warmest vineyards with the best exposure. Two intense September rainstorms marked a break from otherwise summery conditions. The first happened around September 10 and this actually helped aromatic ripening to begin again and thus was helpful. The second rainfall arrived later, on September 25 and 26, when the fruit was already ripe. At that point, there was no point in waiting any more and as soon as the sun dried the fruit, we began to harvest on September 29 and we finished picking on October 7 after nine days of good weather that allowed us to harvest excellent, healthy fruit.
2006 Barbaresco will be an excellent Barbaresco with natural alcoholic content higher than 13.5%, with intense color and good acidity. A good wine for aging, from another vintage in a string of good vintages including 2004 and 2005."
PHYLLOXERA, small, sap-eating, greenish insect of the genus Phylloxera, closely related to the aphid . Phylloxeras feed on leaves and roots, and many species produce galls on deciduous trees. Their life cycle is complex; one species is known to pass through 21 different stages. Most notorious of the group is the grape phylloxera, Phylloxera vitifoliae, native to E North America. The species has winged and wingless generations, the former causing galls on grape leaves and the latter feeding on the roots, causing nodules and eventually killing the vine. The grape phylloxera came close to destroying the wine industry of France after its accidental introduction in about 1860; grafting of susceptible European vines onto resistant North American root stock saved the European vineyards. Phylloxeras are classified in the phylum Arthropoda , class Insecta, order Homoptera, family Phylloxeridae.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; 1/10/2004